The Somoninge of Everyman

The rhyme scheme of the play combines couplets and quatrains made up of lines of unequal length in stanzas of varying lengths, with occasional tail rhyme. The English Everyman survives in four printed editions by two printers from the period 1508 to 1537. The present text is based on the Britwell copy (ca. 1528-29), printed by John Skot. Apparently none of the four texts was copied from any other; all may be derived from a common original. The other copies have been used to correct the Britwell copy when it is clearly in error, as indicated in the textual notes.





Here Beginneth a Treatise how the hye Fader of Heven sendeth Dethe to somon every Creature to come and give Acounte of their Lives in this Worlde, and is in Maner of a Morall Playe.
[Enter a messenger as prologue.]
  MESSENGER. I pray you all give your audience,  
      And here this mater with reverence, hear
      By figure a morall playe: In form
      The Somoninge of Everyman called it is,  
      That of our lives and endinge shewes  
      How transitory we be all daye. always
      This mater is wonder[ou]s precious,  
      But the entent of it is more gracious, intent, moral lesson
      And swete to bere awaye.  
10     The story saith: Man, in the beginninge  
      Loke well, and take good heed to the endinge,  
      Be you never so gay!  
      Ye thinke sinne in the beginninge full swere  
      Whiche in the ende causeth the soule to wepe  
      Whan the body lieth in claye.  
      Here shall you se how Falawship and Jolité,  
      Bothe Strengthe, Pleasure, and Beauté,  
      Will fade from the[e] as floure in Maye;  
      For ye shall here how our heven Kinge hear
20     Calleth Everyman to a generall rekeninge.  
      Give audience, and here what he doth saye. [Exit.] hear
God speketh [from above]:
  GOD. I perceive, here in my majesté,  
      How that all creatures be to me unkinde,  
      Livinge without drede in worldly prosperité.  
      Of ghostly sight the people be so blinde, spiritual vision
      Drowned in sinne, they know me not for their God.  
      In worldely riches is all their minde;  
      They fere not my rightwysnes, the sharpe rod. fear|righteousness
      My love that I shewed whan I for them died  
      They forgete clene, and shedinge of my blode rede.  
      I hanged bitwene two [theves], it cannot be denied;  
      To gete them life I suffred to be deed; get|consented|dead
33     I heled their fete, with thornes hurt was my heed. feet
      I coude do no more than I dide, truely;  
      And nowe I se the people do clene forsake me.  
      They use the seven deedly sinnes dampnable,  
      As pride, coveitise, wrath, and lechery  
      Now in the worlde be made commendable;  
      And thus they leve of aungelles the hevenly company. leave
40     Every man liveth so after his owne pleasure,  
      And yet of their life they be nothinge sure. not at all secure
      I se the more that I them forbere spare them
      The worse they be fro yere to yere. from
      All that liveth appaireth faste. grows worse
      Therfore I will, in all the haste,  
      Have a rekeninge of every mannes persone;  
      For, and I leve the people thus alone if
      In their life and wicked tempestes,  
      Verily they will become moche worse than beestes!  
50     For now one wolde by envy another up ete;  
      Charité they do all clene forgete.  
      I hoped well that every man  
      In my glory sholde make his mansion,  
      And therto I had them all electe.  
      But now I se, like traitours dejecte, abject
      They thanke me not for the pleasure that I to them ment, meant for them
      Nor yet for their beinge that I them have lent.  
      I profered the people grete multitude of mercy.  
      And fewe there be that asketh it hertly. with their hearts
60     They be so combred with worldly riches  
      That nedes on them I must do justice, I must needs, must
      On everyman livinge, without fere.  
      Where arte thou, Deth, thou mighty messengere?  
[Enter] Death.
  DETHE. Almighty God, I am here at your will,  
      Your commaundement to fulfill.  
  GOD. Go thou to Everyman  
      And shewe him, in my name,  
      A pilgrimage he must on him take  
      Whiche he in no wise may escape,  
70     And that he bringe with him a sure rekeninge  
      Without delay or ony taryenge. [God withdraws.]  
  DETHE. Lorde, I will in the worlde go renne over all, run everywhere
      And cruelly out-serche bothe grete and small.  
      Every man will I beset that liveth beestly  
      Out of Goddes lawes, and dredeth not foly.  
      He that loveth richesse I will strike with my darte,  
77     His sight to blinde, and fro heven to departe - separate
      Excepte that almes be his good frende - Unless
      In hell for to dwell, worlde without ende.  
[Enter Everyman at a distance.]
      Loo, yonder I se Everyman walkinge.  
      Full litell he thinketh on my cominge;  
      His minde is on flesshely lustes and his treasure,  
      And grete paine it shall cause him to endure to submit himself
      Before the Lorde, heven Kinge.  
[Death halts Everyman.]
      Everyman, stande still! Winder arte thou goinge  
      Thus gaily? Hast thou thy Maker forgete?  
  EVERYMAN. Why askest thou?  
      Woldest thou wete? wit, know
  DETHE. Ye[a], sir, I will shewe you:  
90     In grete hast[e] I am sende to the[e|  
      Fro God out of his magesté.  
  EVERYMAN. What, sente to me?  
  DETHE. Ye[a], certainly.  
      Thoughe thou have forgete him here,  
      He thinketh on the[e] in the hevenly sp[h]ere,  
      As, or we departe, thou shalte knowe. ere
  EVERYMAN. What desireth God of me?  
  DETHE. That shall I shewe the[e]:  
      A rekeninge he will nedes have he must have
100     Without ony lenger respite. any longer
  EVERYMAN. To give a rekeninge, longer laiser I crave! leisure
      This blinde mater troubleth my witte. obscure
  DETHE. On the[e] thou must take a longe journey;  
      Therfore thy boke of counte with the[e] thou bringe, account
      For tourne againe thou cannot by no waye. return
      And loke thou be sure of thy rekeninge,  
      For before God thou shalte answere and shewe  
      Thy many badde dedes, and good but a fewe, deeds
      How thou hast spente thy life, and in what wise,  
110     Before the chefe Lorde of paradise.  
      Have ado that we were in that waye, See to it/on our way
      For, wete thou well, thou shalte make none attournay. make no one (your) attorney
  EVERYMAN. Full unredy I am suche rekeninge to give.  
      I knowe the[e] not. What messenger arte thou?  
  DETHE. I am Dethe, that no man dredeth, that fears no man
      For every man I reste, and no man spareth. arrest
      For it is Goddes commaundement  
      That all to me sholde be obedient.  
  EVERYMAN. O Deth, thou comest whin I had the[e] leest in minde!  
120     In thy power it lieth me to save;  
      Yet of my good wil I give the[e], if thou wil be kinde: goods
      Ye[a], a thousande pounde shalte thou have,  
      And [thou] differre this mater till another daye. If you defer
  DETHE. Everyman, it may not be, by no waye.  
      I set not by golde, silver, nor richesse, care not for
      Ne by pope, emperour, kinge, duke, ne princes;  
      For, and I wolde receive giftes grete, if/great
      All the worlde I might gete;  
      But my custome is clene contrary.  
130     I give the[e] no respite. Come hens, and not tary. hence
  EVERYMAN. Alas, shall I have no lenger respite?  
      I may saye Deth giveth no warninge!  
      To thinke oh the[e], it maketh my herte seke, sick
      For all unredy is my boke of rekeninge.  
      But twelve yere and I might have abidinge, Only/if I could stay
      My countinge-boke I wolde make so clere  
      That my rekeninge I sholde not nede to fere.  
      Wherfore, Deth, I praye the[e], for Goddes mercy,  
      Spare me till I be provided of remedy!  
  DETHE. The[e] availeth not to crye, wepe, and praye;  
141     But hast[e] the[e] lightly that thou were gone that journaye, quickly
      And preve thy frendes if thou can; make trial of
      For, wete thou well, the tide abideth no man, know/time
      And in the worlde eche livinge creature  
      For Adams sinne must die of nature. in the course of nature
  EVERYMAN. Dethe, if I sholde this pilgrimage take,  
      And my rekeninge suerly make, surely
      Shewe me, for saint charité, for (the sake of) holy
      Sholde I not come againe shortly?  
150 DETHE. No, Everyman. And thou be ones there, Once you're there
      Thou mayst nevermore come here,  
      Trust me verily.  
  EVERYMAN. O gracious God in the hye sete celestiall, high seat
      Have mercy on me in this moost nede  
      Shall I have no company fro this vale terestriall  
      Of mine acqueyn[taun]ce, that way me to lede?  
  DETHE. Ye[a], if ony be so hardy  
      That wolde go with the[e] and bere the[e] company.  
      Hie the[e] that thou were gone to Goddes magnificence, Hasten
      Thy rekeninge to give before his presence.  
161     What, wenest thou thy live is given the[e], ween, suppose/life
      And thy worldely gooddes also?  
  EVERYMAN. I had wende so, verilé verily
  DETHE. Nay, nay, it was but lende the[e]. lent
      For as soone as thou arte go, gone, dead
      Another a while shall have it, and than go therfro, then go from it
      Even as thou hast done.  
      Everyman, thou arte mad! Thou hast thy wittes five,  
      And here on erthe will not amende thy live - And (yet)
      For sodeynly I do come.  
171 EVERYMAN. O wretched caitife, wheder shall I flee whither
      That I might scape this endles sorowe?  
      Now, gentill Deth, spare me till tomorowe,  
      That I may amende me  
      With good advisement. reflection
  DETHE. Naye, therto I will not consent,  
      Nor no man will I respite,  
      But to the herte sodeynly I shall smite  
      Without ony advisement.  
180     And now out of thy sight I will me hy. hie, hasten
      Se thou make the[e] redy shortely,  
      For thou mayst saye this is the daye  
      That no man livinge may scape awaye. [Exit.]  
  EVERYMAN. Alas, I may well wepe with sighes depe!  
      Now have I no maner of company  
      To helpe me in my journey, and me to kepe; protect
      And also my writinge is full unredy. i.e., my accounts
      How shall I do now for to excuse me?  
      I wolde to God I had never be gete! been begotten
190     To my soule a full grete profite it had be been
      For now I fere paines huge and grete.  
      The time passeth. Lorde, helpe, that all wrought! who created everything
      For though I mourne it availeth nought:  
      The day passeth, and is almoost ago. gone
      I wote not well what for to do.  
      To whome were I best my complaint to make?  
      What and I to Felawship therof spake, if
      And shewyd him of this sodeyne chaunce? misfortune
      For in him is all mine affiaunce, trust
200     We have in the worlde so many a daye  
      Be good frendes, in sporte and playe.  
[Fellowship enters at a distance.]
      I se him yonder, certainely.  
      I trust that he will bere me company;  
      Therfore to him will I speke to ese my sorowe.  
      Well mette, good Felawship, and good morowe!  
Felawship speketh:
  FELAWSHIP. Everyman, good morowe, by this daye!  
      Sir, why lokest thou so piteously?  
      If ony thinge be amisse, I praye the[e] me saye.  
      That I may helpe to remedy.  
210 EVERYMAN. Ye[a], good Felawship, ye[a],  
      I am in greate jeopardé  
  FELAWSHIP. My true frende, shewe to me your minde;  
      I will not forsake the[e] to my lives ende  
      In the waye of good company.  
  EVERYMAN. That was well spoken, and lovingly.  
  FELAWSHIP. Sir, I must nedes knowe your hevinesse; sorrow
      I have pité to se you in ony distresse.  
      If ony have you wronged, ye shall revenged be, If anyone has
      Thoughe I on the grounde be slaine for the[e] -  
220     Though that I knowe before that I sholde die!  
  EVERYMAN. Verily, Felawship, gramercy. great thanks
  FELAWSHIP. Tusshe, by thy thankes I set not a strawe! don't care a bit
      Shewe me your grefe, and saye no more.  
  EVERYMAN. If I my herte sholde to you breke, reveal
      And than you to tourne your minde fro me then
      And wolde not me comforte whan ye here me speke, hear
      Than sholde I ten times sorier be.  
  FELAWSHIP. Sir, I saye as I will do indede.  
  EVERYMAN. Than be you a good frende at nede!  
230     I have founde you true herebefore.  
  FELAWSHIP. And so ye shall evermore.  
      For, in faith, and thou go to hell, even if
      I will not forsake the[e] by the waye.  
  EVERYMAN. Ye speke like a good frende! I bileve you well  
      I shall deserve it, and I maye. repay/if
  FELAWSHIP. I speke of no deservinge, by this daye!  
      For he that will saye, and nothinge do,  
      Is not worthy with good company to go.  
      Therfore shewe me the grefe of your minde,  
240     As to your frende moost lovinge and kinde.  
  EVERYMAN. I shall shewe you how it is:  
      Commaunded I am to go a journaye -  
      A longe waye, harde, and daungerous -  
      And give a straite counte, without delaye, strict account
      Before the hye Juge, Adonai. (a Hebrew name for God)
      Wherfore, I pray you, bere me company,  
      As ye have promised, in this journaye.  
  FELAWSHIP. That is mater indede! Promise is duty; a serious business
      But, and I sholde take suche a vyage on me, if
250     I knowe it well, it sholde be to my paine.  
      Also it make[th] me aferde, certaine.  
      But let us take counsell here, as well as we can, let's deliberate
      For your wordes wolde fere a stronge man. frighten
  EVERYMAN. Why, ye said if I had nede  
      Ye wolde me never forsake, quicke ne deed, alive nor dead
      Thoughe it were to hell, truely.  
  FELAWSHIP. So I said, certainely,  
258     But suche pleasures be set aside, the sothe to saye.  
      And also, if we toke suche a journaye,  
      Whan sholde we againe come?  
  EVERYMAN. Naye, never againe, till the daye of dome. doom
  FELAWSHIP. In faith, than will not I come there!  
      Who hath you these tidinges brought?  
  EVERYMAN. Indede, Deth was with me here.  
  FELAWSHIP. Now, by God that all hathe bought, redeemed
      If Deth were the messenger,  
      For no man that is livinge todaye  
      I will not go that lothe journaye - loathsome
      Not for the fader that bigate me! begat
  EVERYMAN. Ye promised otherwise, pardé. by God
  FELAWSHIP. I wote well I sai[d] so, truely.  
      And yet, if thou wilte ete, and drinke, and make good chere,  
273     Or haunt to women the lusty company,  
      I wolde not forsake you while the daye is clere, until dawn
      Trust me, verily.  
  EVERYMAN. Ye[a], therto ye wolde be redy!  
      To go to mirthe, solas, and playe  
      Your minde will so[o]ner apply, attend
      Than to bere me company in my longe journaye.  
280 FELAWSHIP. Now, in good faith, I will not that waye. will not (go)
      But, and thou will murder, or ony man kill, if
      In that I will helpe the[e] with a good will.  
  EVERYMAN. O, that is a simple advise, indede. foolish
      Gentill Felaw[ship]e, helpe me in my necessité!  
      We have loved longe, and now I nede;  
      And now, gentill Felawship, remembre me!  
  FELAWSHIP. Wheder ye have loved me or no, Whether
      By Saint Johan, I will not with the[e] go.  
289 EVERYMAN. Yet, I pray the[e], take the labour and do so moche for me.  
290     To bringe me forwarde, for saint charité,  
      And comforte me till I come without the towne. arrive outside
  FELAWSHIP. Nay, and thou wolde give me a newe gowne, even if
      I will not a fote with the[e] go. foot
      But, and thou had taried, I wolde not have lefte the[e] so. if/stayed here
      And as now God spede the[e] in thy journaye, And now may God
      For from the[fe] I will departe as fast as I maye.  
  EVERYMAN. Wheder awaye, Felawship? Will thou forsake me? Whither
  FELAWSHIP. Ye[a], by my faye! To God I betake the[e]. faith/commend
  EVERYMAN. Farewell, good Felawship! For the[e] my herte is sore.  
300     Adewe forever! I shall se the[e] no more.  
  FELAWSHIP. In faith, Everyman, farewell now at the end[ing]e!  
      For you I will remembre that partinge is mourninge. [Exit.]  
  EVERYMAN. Alacke, shall we thus departe indede - part
      A, Lady, helpe! - without ony more comforte?  
      Lo, Felawship forsaketh me in my moost nede.  
      For helpe in this worlde wheder shall I resorte? whither
      Felawship herebefore with me wolde mery make,  
      And now litell sorowe for me dooth he take.  
      It is said, "In prosperité men frendes may finde,  
310     Whiche in adversité be full unkinde."  
      Now wheder for socoure shall I flee, whither
      Sith that Felawship hath forsaken me? since
      To my kinnesmen I will, truely,  
      Prayenge them to helpe me in my necessité.  
      I bileve that they will do so,  
316     For "kinde will crepe where it may not go." kinship/creep/walk
      I will go saye, for yonder I se them. essay, try
      Where be ye now, my frendes and kinnesmen?  
[Enter Kindred and Cousin.]
  KINREDE. Here be we now, at your commaundement.  
      Cosyn, I praye you shewe us your entent Cousin (i.e., Everyman)
      In ony wise, and not spare. In everything/do not hesitate
  COSYN. Ye[a], Everyman, and to us declare  
      If ye be disposed to go ony-whyder; anywhere
      For, wete you well, [we] will live and die togyder. wit, know
  KINREDE. In welth and wo we will with you holde, keep
      For over his kinne a man may be bolde. For with/may presume favors
  EVERYMAN. Gramercy, my frendes and kinnesmen kinde.  
      Now shall I shewe you the grefe of my minde:  
      I was commaunded by a messenger  
      That is a hye kinges chefe officer; high king's
      He bad[e] me go a pilgrimage, to my paine,  
      And I knowe well I shall never come againe.  
      Also I must give a rekeninge straite strict
334     For I have a grete enemy that hath me in waite. enemy (the devil)
      Whiche entendeth me for to hinder.  
  KINREDE. What acounte is that whiche ye must render?  
      That wolde I knowe.  
  EVERYMAN. Of all my workes I must shewe  
      How I have lived, and my dayes spent;  
340     Also of ill dedes that I have used practiced
      In my time, sith life was me lent, since
      And of all vertues that I have refused.  
      Therfore, I praye you, go thider with me  
      To helpe to make min[e] accounte, for saint charité. holy
  COSYN. What, to go thider? Is that the mater?  
      Nay, Everyman, I had lever fast brede and water rather fast on
      All this five yere and more.  
  EVERYMAN. Alas that ever I was bore! born
      For now shall I never be mery  
      If that you forsake me.  
351 KINREDE. A, sir, what ye be a mery man!  
      Take good herte to you, and make no mone. moan
      But one thinge, I warne you, by Saint Anne:  
      As for me, ye shall go alone.  
  EVERYMAN. My Cosyn, will you not with me go?  
  COSYN. No, by Our Lady! I have the crampe in my to[e].  
      Trust not to me, for, so God me spede, may God help me
      I will deceive you in your moost nede.  
  KINREDE. It availeth not us to tise. It's no use trying to entice us
360     Ye shall have my maide with all my herte;  
      She loveth to go to feestes, there to be nise, wanton
      And to daunce, and abrode to sterte; to gad about
      I will give her leve to helpe you in that journey, leave, permission
      If that you and she may agree.  
  EVERYMAN. Now, shewe me the veryeffecte of your minde: true tenor
      Will you go with me, or abide behinde?  
  KINREDE. Abide behinde? Ye[a], that will I, and I maye!  
      Therfore farewell till another daye. [Exit Kindred.]  
  EVERYMAN. Howe sholde I be mery or gladde?  
370     For, faire promises men to me make,  
      But whan I have moost nede they me forsake.  
      I am deceived; that maketh me sadde.  
  COSYN. Cosyn Everyman, farewell now,  
      For verily I will not go with you.  
      Also of mine owne [life] an unredy rekeninge  
      I have to accounte; therfore I make taryenge. tarrying
      Now God kepe the[e], for now I go. [Exit.] protect
  EVERYMAN. A, Jesus, is all come hereto? everything come to this
379     Lo, faire worries maketh fooles faine; glad
      They promise, and nothinge will do, certaine.  
      My kinnesmen promised me faithfully  
      For to abide with me stedfastly,  
      And now fast awaye do they flee;  
      Even so Felawship promised me. in the same way
      What frende were best me of to provide? to provide myself with
      I lose my time here longer to abide.  
      Yet in my minde a thinge there is:  
      All my life I have loved riches.  
      If that my Good now helpe me might, Goods
390     He wolde make my herte full light.  
      I will speke to him in this distresse.  
      Where arte thou, my Gooddes and riches?  
[Goods speaks from a corner.]
  GOODES. Who calleth me? Everyman? What, hast thou haste?  
      I lie here in corners, trussed and piled so hye,  
      And in chestes I am locked so fast,  
      Also sacked in bagges. Thou mayst se with thin[e] eye  
      I cannot stir[r]e; in packes lowe I lie.  
      What wolde ye have? Lightly me saye. Quickly
  EVERYMAN. Come hider, Good, in al the hast[e] thou may, hither
400     For of counseyll I must desire the [e]. I must ask your advice
[Goods approaches.]
  GOODES. Sir, and ye in the worlde have sorowe or adversité, if
      That can I helpe you to remedy shortly.  
  EVERYMAN. It is another disease that greveth me; trouble
      In this worlde it is not, I tell the[e] so.  
      I am sent for another way to go,  
      To give a straite counte generall strict overall account
      Before the hyest Jupiter of all;  
      And all my life I have had joye and pleasure in the[e],  
      Therfore, I pray the[e], go with me.  
410     For, paraventure, thou mayst before God Almighty  
      My rekeninge helpe to clene and purifye;  
      For it is said ever amonge it is sometimes said
      That "money maketh all right that is wronge."  
  GOODES. Nay, Everyman, I singe another songe!  
      I folowe no man in suche vyages;  
      For, and I wente with the[e],  
      Thou sholdes[t] fare moche the worse for me.  
      For-bicause on me thou did set thy minde Because
      Thy rekeninge I have made blotted and blinde, flawed and obscure
      That thine accounte thou cannot make truly -  
421     And that hast thou for the love of me!  
  EVERYMAN. That wolde greve me full sore,  
423     Whan I sholde come to that ferefull answere.  
      Up, let us go thider togyder.  
  GOODES. Nay, not so! I am to[o] britell, I may not endure. britlle
      I will folowe [no] man one fote, be ye sure.  
  EVERYMAN. Alas, I have the[e] loved, and had grete pleasure  
      All my life-dayes on good and treasure!  
  GOODES. That is to thy dampnacion, without lesinge, without a lie, truly
430     For my love is contrary to the love everlastinge.  
      But, if thou had me loved moderately duringe, during (your life)
      As to the poore [to] give parte of me, (So) as
      Than sholdest thou not in this dolour be,  
      Nor in this grete sorowe and care.  
  EVERYMAN. Lo, now was I deceived or I was ware, ere/aware
436     And all I may wite mi[s]spendinge of time! totally I may blame
  GOOODES. (What, wenest thou that I am thine?)  
  EVERYMAN. I had went so. weened, supposed
  GOODES. Naye, Everyman, I saye no.  
      As for a while I was lente the[e];  
      A season thou hast had me in prosperité.  
      My condicion is mannes soule to kill; nature
      If I save one, a thousande I do spill. destroy
      Wenest thou that I will folowe the[e]?  
      Nay, fro this worlde not, verilé. (I will) not (go), verily
  EVERYMAN. I had wende otherwise.  
  GOODES. Therfore to thy soule Good is a thefe;  
      For whan thou arte deed, this is my g[u]ise:  
      Another to deceive in this same wise  
450     As I have done the[e], and all to his soules reprefe soul's reproof
  EVERYMAN. O false Good, cursed [may] thou be,  
      Thou traitour to God, that hast deceived me  
      And caugh[t] me in thy snare!  
  GOODES. Mar[r]y, thou brought thyselfe in care,  
      Wherof I am [right] gladde;  
      I must nedes laugh, I cannot be sadde.  
  EVERYMAN. A, Good, thou hast had longe my hertely love!  
      I gave the[e] that whiche sholde be the Lordes above. Lord's
      But wilte thou not go with me indede?  
460     I praye the[e] trouth to say. tell (me) the truth
  GOODES. No, so God me spede!  
      Therfore farewell, and have good daye. [Exit.]  
  EVERYMAN. O, to whome shall I make my mone  
      For to go with me in that hevy journaye?  
      First Felawship said he wolde with me gone. go
      His wordes were very pleasaunt and gaye,  
      But afterwarde he lefte me alone.  
      Than spake I to my kinnesmen, all in dispaire,  
      An[d] also they gave me wordes faire -  
470     They lacked no faire spekinge,  
      But all forsoke me in the endinge.  
      Than wente I to my Goodes, that I loved best,  
      In hope to have comforte; but there had I leest,  
      For my Goodes sharpely did me tell/td>  
      That he bringeth many into hell.  
      Than of myselfe I was ashamed;  
      And so I am worthy to be blamed.  
      Thus may I well myselfe hate.  
      Of whome shall I now counseyll take?  
480     I thinke that I shall never spede  
      Till that I go to my Good Dede.  
      But, alas, she is so weke  
      That she can nother go nor speke. neither walk
      Yet will I venter on her now. venture
      My Good Dedes, where be you?  
[Good Deeds, speaks from the ground.]
  GOOD DEDES. Here I lie, colde in the grounde.  
      Thy sinnes hath me sore bounde.  
       That I cannot stere. Stir
  EVERYMAN. O Good Dedes, I stande in fere!  
490     I must you pray of counseyll,  
      For helpe now sholde come right well. would be very welcome
  GOOD DEDES. Everyman, I have understandinge  
      That ye be somoned a[c]counte to make summoned
      Before Myssias, of Jherusalem kinge; Messiah
      And you do by me, that journay with you will I take. If you do as I advise
  EVERYMAN. Therfore I come to you my moone to make. moan
      I praye you that ye will go with me.  
  GOOD DEDES. I wolde full faine, but I cannot stande, verily. gladly
  EVERYMAN. Why, is there onythinge on you fall? happened to you
500 GOOD DEDES. Ye[a], sir, I may thanke you of all!  
      If ye had parfitely chered me,thoroughly nurtured me  
      Your boke of counte full redy had be.  
[Shows Everyman his Book of Account.]
      Loke, the bokes of your workes and dedes eke! deeds also
      Beholde how they lie under the fete.  
      To your soules hevines. sorrow
  EVERYMAN. Our Lorde Jesus helpe me!  
507     For one letter here I cannot se.  
  GOOD DEDES. Here is a blinde rekeninge in time of distres! obscure
  EVERYMAN. Good Dedes, I praye you helpe me in this nede,  
      Or elles I am forever dampned indede!  
      Therfore helpe me to make [my] rekeninge  
      Before the Redemer of all thinge,  
      That kinge is, and was, and ever shall. shall (be)
  GOOD DEDES. Everyman, I am sory of your fall,  
      And faine wolde I helpe you, and I were able. if
  EVERYMAN. Good Dedes, your counseyll I pray you give me.  
  GOOD DEDES. That shall I do, verily.  
      Thoughe that on my fete I may not go,  
      I have a sister that shall with you also,  
520     Called Knowlege, whiche shall with you abide Knowledge (of one's sins)
      To helpe you to make that dredefull rekeninge.  
[Enter Knowledge.]
  KNOWLEGE. Everyman, I will go with the[e], and be thy g[u]ide,  
      In thy moost nede to go by thy side.  
  EVERYMAN. In good condicion I am now in everythinge,  
      And am [w]holy content with this good thinge,  
      Thanked be God my creature! creator
  GOOD DEDES. And whan [s]he hath brought you there  
      Where thou shalte hele the[e] of thy smarte, pain
      Than go you with your rekeninge and your Good Dedes togyder  
530     For to make you joyfull at herte  
      Before the blessyd Trinité.  
  EVERYMAN. My Good Dedes, gramercy!  
      I am well content, certainly,  
      With your wordes swete.  
  KNOWLEGE. Now go we togyder lovingly  
      To Confession, that clensinge rivere.  
  EVERYMAN. For joy I wepe; I wolde we were there!  
      But, I pray you, give me cognicion  
      Where dwelleth that holy man, Confession?  
540 KNOWLEGE. In the hous of salvacion. i.e., the Church
      We shall finde him in that place  
      That shall us comforte, by Goddes grace.  
[Knowledge leads Everyman to Confession.]
      Lo, this is Confession. Knele downe and aske mercy,  
      For he is in good conceite with God Almighty. high esteem
  EVERYMAN [kneeling]. O glorious fountaine, that all unclennes doth clarify,  
      Wasshe fro me the spottes of vice unclene,  
      That on me no sinne may be sene.  
      I come, with Knowlege, for my redemption,  
      Redempte with herte and full contricion; Redeemed by earnestness
550     For I am commaunded a pilgrimage to take,  
      And grete accountes before God to make.  
      Now I praye you, Shrifte, moder of salvacion, Confession
       Helpe my Good Dedes for my piteous exclamacion! in response to
  CONFESSION. I knowe your sorowe well, Everyman.  
      Bicause with Knowlege ye come to me,  
      I will you comforte as well as I can.  
      And a precious Jewell I will give the[e]  
      Called penaunce, voider of adversité; expeller
      Therwith shall your body chastised be  
560     With abstinence and perseveraunce in Goddes service.  
      [Shows Everyman a knotted scourge.] whip
      Here shall you receive that scourge of me,  
      Whiche is penaunce stronge that ye must endure,  
      To remembre thy Saviour was scourged for the[e]  
      With sharpe scourges, and suffred it patiently;  
      So must thou, or thou scape that painful pilgrimage. ere you escape
      Knowlege, kepe him in this vyage, course
      And by that time Good Dedes will be with the[e].  
      But in ony wise be seker of mercy, sure
      For your time draweth fast. And ye will saved be, draws to a close/If
570     Aske God mercy, and he will graunte truely  
      Whan with the scourge of penaunce man doth him binde, punishes himself
      The oile of forgivenes than shall he finde.  
  EVERYMAN. Thanked be God for his gracious werke!  
      For now I will my penaunce begin.  
575     This hath rejoised and lighted my herte, lightened
576     Though the knottes be painful and harde, within.  
  KNOWLEGE. Everyman, loke your penaunce that ye fulfill, see to it
      What paine that ever it to you be; No matter how painful
      And Knowlege shall give you counseyll at will readily
      How your accounte ye shall make clerely.  
[Everyman makes his confession.]
  EVERYMAN. O eternall God, O hevenly figure,  
      O way of rightwisnes, O goodly vision,  
      Whiche discended downe in a virgin pure  
      Bicause he wolde every man redeme,  
      Whiche Adam forfaited by his disobedience: Which (redemption)
      O blessid Godheed, electe and hye devine, exalted/divinity
      Forgive [me] my grevous offence!  
      Here I crye the[e] mercy in this presence. company
      O ghostly treasure, O raunsomer and redemer, spiritual
590     Of all the worlde hope and conduiter, conductor, guide
      Mirrour of joye, foundatour of mercy, founder
      Whiche enlumineth heven and erth therby: illumines
      Here my clamorous complaint, though it late be, Hear
      Receive my prayers, of thy benignitye!  
      Though I be a sinner moost abhominable,  
      Yet let my name be writ[t]en in Moyses table. i.e., as a penitent
      O Mary, praye to the Maker of all thinge,  
      Me for to helpe at my endinge,  
      And save me fro the power of my enemy;  
      For Deth assaileth me strongly.  
601     And, Lady, that I may by meane of thy prayer  
602     Of your sones glory to be partinere  
603     By the meanes of his Passion, I it crave.  
      I beseche you helpe my soule to save!  
[He rises.]
      Knowlege, give me the scourge of penaunce:  
      My flesshe therwith shall give acqueyntaunce. be acquainted
      I will now begin, if God give me grace.  
  KNOWLEGE. Everyman, God give you time and space! opportunity
      Thus I bequeth you in the handes of our Saviour.  
610     Now may you make your rekeninge sure.  
  EVERYMAN. In the name of the holy Trinité  
      My body sore punisshed shall be.  
[Scourges himself]
      Take this, body, for the sinne of the flesshe!  
      Also thou deli[gh]test to go gay and fresshe,  
      And in the way of dampnacion thou did me bringe;  
      Therfore suffre now strokes of punisshinge.  
      Now of penaunce I will wade the water clere,  
      To save me from purgatory, that sharpe fire.  
[Good Deeds rises from the ground.]
  GOOD DEDES. I thanke God, now I can walke and go,  
620     And am delivered of my sikenesse and wo!  
      Therfore with Everyman I will go, and not spare: hold back
      His good workes I will helpe him to declare.  
  KNOWLEGE. Now, Everyman, be mery and glad!  
      Your Good Dedes cometh now; ye may not be sad.  
      Now is your Good Dedes [w]hole and sounde,  
      Goinge upright upon the grounde.  
  EVERYMAN. My herte is light, and shal be evermore.  
      Now will I smite faster than I dide before. [Continues to scourge.]  
  GOOD DEDES. Everyman, pilgrime, my speciall frende,  
630     Blessyd be thou without ende!  
      For the[e] is preparate the eternall glory. prepared
      Ye have me made [w]hole and sounde,  
      Therfore I will bide by the[e] in every stounde. time of trial
  EVERYMAN. Welcome, my Good Dedes! Now I here thy voice, Now (that) I hear
      I wepe for very swetenes of love.  
  KNOWLEGE. Be no more sad, but ever rejoice.  
637     God seeth thy livinge in his trone above.  
      Put on this garment to thy behove, behoof, benefit
      Whiche is wette with your teres.  
      Or elles before God you may it misse  
      Whan ye to your journeys ende come shall.  
  EVERYMAN. Gentill Knowlege, what do ye it call?  
  KNOWLEGE. It is the garment of sorowe.  
      Fro paine it will you borowe. rescue
      Contricion it is,  
      That getteth forgivenes;  
      It pleaseth God passinge well. exceedingly
  GOOD DEDES. Everyman, will you were it for your hele? wear/salvation
[Everyman puts on the robe of contrition.]
  EVERYMAN. Now blessyd be Jesu, Maryes sone,  
650     For now have I on true contricion.  
      And lette us go now without taryenge. tarrying
      Good Dedes, have we clere our rekeninge?  
  GOOD DEDES. Ye[a], indede, I have [it] here.  
  EVERYMAN. Than I trust we nede not fere.  
      Now, frendes, let us not parte in twaine.  
  KNOWLEGE. Nay, Everyman, that will we not, certaine.  
  GOOD DEDES. Yet must thou led[e] with the[e]  
      Thre persones of grete might.  
  EVERYMAN. Who sholde they be?  
660 GOOD DEDES. Discrecion and Strength they hight, are called
      And thy Beauté may not abide behinde.  
  KNOWLEGE. Also ye must call to minde  
      Your Five Wittes as for your counseylours.  
  GOOD DEDES. You must have them redy at all houres.  
  EVERYMAN. Howe shall I gette them hyder? hither
  KNOWLEGE. You must call them all togyder,  
      And they will here you incontinent. hear/immediately
  EVERYMAN. My frendes, come hider and be present,  
      Discrecion, Strengthe, my Five Wittes, and Beauté!  
[Enter Discretion, Strength, Five Wits, and Beauty.]
670 BEAUTE. Here at your will we be all redy.  
      What wolde ye that we sholde do?  
  GOOD DEDES. That ye wolde with Everyman go  
      And helpe him in his pilgrimage.  
      Advise you, will ye with him or not in that vyage? Consider
  STRENGTH. We will bringe him all thyder,  
      To his helpe and comforte, ye may bileve me.  
  DISCRECION. So will we go with him all togyder.  
  EVERYMAN. Almighty God, loved may thou be!  
      I give the[e] laude that I have hider brought praise
680     Strength, Discrecion, Beauté and Five Wittes. Lacke I nought.  
      And my Good Dedes, with Knowlege clere,  
      All be in company at my will here. are together at my command
      I desire no more to my besines. for my purpose
  STRENGTH. And I, Strength, will by you stande in distres,  
      Though thou wolde in bataile fight on the grounde. battle
  FIVE WITTES. And though it were thrugh the worlde rounde, i.e., no matter where
      We will not departe, for swete ne soure. i.e., in good times or bad
  BEAUTE. No more will I, unto dethes houre, until
      Whatsoever therof befall.  
690 DISCRECION. Everyman, advise you first of all: consider
      Go with a good advisement and deliberacion. reflection
      We all give you vertuous monicion i.e., assurance
      That all shall be well.  
  EVERYMAN. My frendes, harken what I will tell -  
      I praye God rewarde you in his heven[ly] sp[h]ere -  
      Now herken all that be here,  
      For I will make my testament  
      Here before you all present:  
      In almes halfe my good I will give with my handes twaine  
      In the way of charité, with good entent,  
701     And the other halfe still shall remaine  
702     In queth, to be retourned there it ought to be. bequest/where
      This I do in despite of the fende of hell,  
      To go quite out of his perell freed from peril of him
      Ever after and this daye. Today and forever
  KNOWLEGE. Everyman, herken what I saye:  
      Go to Presthode, I you advise,  
      And receive of him, in ony wise without fail
      The holy sacrament and ointement togyder. extreme unction
710     Than shortly se ye tourne againe hyder; return
      We will all abide you here.  
  FIVE WITTES. Ye[a], Everyman, hie you that ye redy were. hasten to get ready
      There is no emperour, kinge, duke, ne baron  
      That of God hath commicion authority
      As hath the leest preest in the worlde beinge; living
      For of the blessyd sacramentes pure and benigne  
      He bereth the keyes, and therof hath the cure care, responsibility
      For mannes redempcion - it is ever sure -  
      Whiche God for our soules medicine  
720     Gave us out of his herte with grete paine.  
      Here in this transitory life, for the[e] and me,  
      The blessyd sacramentes seven there be:  
      Baptim, confirmation, with preesthode good, ordination to priesthood
      And the sacrament of Goddes precious flesshe and blod,  
      Mariage, the holy extreme unccion, and penaunce.  
      These seven be good to have in remembraunce,  
      Gracious sacramentes of hye devinité.  
  EVERYMAN. Faine wolde I receive that holy body, i.e., the sacrament
      And mekely to my ghostly fader I will go. spiritual father
730 FIVE WITTES. Everyman, that is the best that ye can do.  
      God will you to salvacion bringe,  
      For preesthode excedeth all other thinge.  
      To us holy Scripture they do teche,  
      And converteth man fro sinne, heven to reche. reach
735     God hath to them more power given  
736     Than to ony aungell that is in heven.  
      With five wordes he may consecrate i.e., "Eat, this is my body"
      Goddes body in flesshe and blode to make,  
      And handeleth his Maker bitwene his hande[s].  
740     The preest bindeth and unhindeth all bandes,  
741     Bothe in erthe and in heven.  
      Thou ministres all the sacramentes seven; administer
      Though we kist thy fete, thou were worthy!  
      Thou arte [the] surgyon that cureth sinne deedly;  
      No remedy we finde under God  
      But all onely preesthode. Except only from
      Everyman, God gave preest[s] that dignité,  
      And setteth them in his stede amonge us to be. place
      Thus be they above aungelles in degree.  
[Everyman goes to receive the sacrament and extreme unction from the priest, while the others await his return.]
750 KNOWLEGE. If preestes be good, it is so, suerly.  
      But whan Jesu hanged on the crossc with grete smarte, pain
      There he gave out of his blessyd herte  
      The seven sacramentes in grete tourment.  
      He solde them not to us, that Lorde omnipotent!  
755     Therefore Saint Peter the Apostell dothe saye  
      That Jesus' curse hath all they  
      Whiche God their Saviour do b[u]y or sell,  
758     Or they for ony money do take or tell.  
      Sinfull preestes giveth the sinners example bad:  
760     Their children sitteth by other mennes fires, I have harde; heard
      And some haunteth womens company  
      With unclene life, as lustes of lechery.  
      These be with sinne made blinde.  
  FIVE WITTES. I trust to God no suche may we finde.  
      Therfore let us preesthode honour,  
      And folowe their doctrine for our soules socoure.  
      We be their shepe, and they shepeherdes be,  
      By whome we all be kepte in suerté safety
      Peas, for yonder I se Everyman come, Silence
770     Whiche hath made true satisfaccion. Who
  GOOD DEDES. Methinke it is he indede.  
[Everyman returns.]
  EVERYMAN. Now Jesu be your alder spede! be helper to you all
      I have received the sacrament for my redempcion,  
      And than mine extreme unccion.  
      Blessyd be all they that counseyled me to take it!  
      And now, frendes, let us go without longer respite;  
      I thanke God that ye have taried so longe.  
      Now set eche of you on this rodde your honde, rood, cross
      And shortely folowe me. quickly
780     I go before there I wolde be. God be our g[u]ide! where I wish to be
  STRENGTH. Everyman, we will not fro you go  
      Till ye have done this vyage longe.  
  DISCRECION. I, Discrecion, will bide by you also.  
  KNOWLEGE. And though this pilgrimage be never so stronge, taxing
      I will never parte you fro. from you
      Everyman, I will be as sure by the[e] steadfast at your side
787     As ever I dide by Judas Machabee.  
[They proceed to Everyman's grave]
  EVERYMAN. Alas, I am so faint I may not stande!  
      My limmes under me do folde.  
      Frendes, let us not tourne againe to this lande,  
      Not for all the worldes golde;  
      For into this cave must I crepe  
      And tourne to erth, and there to slepe.  
  BEAUTÉ. What, into this grave? Alas!  
  EVERYMAN. Ye[a], there shall ye consume, more and lesse, decay everyone
  BEAUTÉ. And what, sholde I smoder here? smother
  EVERYMAN. Ye[a], by my faith, and never more appere.  
      In this worlde live no more we shall,  
      But in heven before the hyest Lorde of all.  
  BEAUTÉ. I crosse out all this! Adewe, by Saint Johan! cancel
801     I take my tappe in my lappe and am gone. flax for spinning
  EVERYMAN. What, Beauté, whider will ye?  
  BEAUTÉ. Peas, I am defe! I loke not behinde me, Peace, silence
      Not and thou woldest give me all the golde in thy chest! if
[Exit Beauty.]
  EVERYMAN. Alas, wherto may I truste?  
      Beauté gothe fast awaye fro me.  
      She promised with me to live and die.  
  STRENGTH. Everyman, I will the[e] also forsake and denye.  
      Thy game liketh me not at all. pleases
810 EVERYMAN. Why than, ye will forsake me all?  
      Swete Strength, tary a litell space. while
  STRENGTH. Nay, sir, by the rode of grace! rood, cross
      I will hie me from the[e] fast,  
      Though thou wepe till thy herte to-brast. burst in pieces
  EVERYMAN. Ye wolde ever bide by me, ye said.  
  STRENGTH. Ye[a], I have you ferre inoughe conveyde! far
      Ye be olde inoughe, I understande,  
      Your pilgrimage to take on hande.  
      I repent me that I hider came.  
820 EVERYMAN. Strength, you to displease I am to blame,  
      Yet promise is dette, this ye well wot.  
  STRENGTH. In faith, I care not.  
      Thou arte but a foole to complaine.  
      You spende your speche, and wast[e] your braine. spend (in vain)
      Go thrist the[e] into the grounde! [Exit.] thrust yourself
  EVERYMAN. I had wende surer I sholde you have founde. weened, supposed
      He that trusteth in his Strength  
      She him deceiveth at the length.  
     &nbspBothe Strength and Beauté forsaketh me,;  
830     Yet they promised me faire and lovingly.  
  DISCRECION. Everyman, I will after Strength be gone.  
      As for me, I will leve you alone.  
  EVERYMAN. Why, Discrecion, will ye forsake me?  
  DISCRECION. Ye[a], in faith, I will go fro the[e],  
      For whan Strength goth before  
      I folowe after evermore.  
  EVERYMAN. Yet, I pray the[e], for the love of the Trinité,  
      Loke in my grave ones piteously! once
  DISCRECION. Nay, so nye will I not come.  
840     Farewell, everychone! [Exit Discretion.] everyone
  EVERYMAN. O, all thinge faileth, save God alone -  
      Beauté, Strength, and Discrecion;  
      For whan Deth bloweth his blast  
      They all renne fro me full fast.  
  FIVE WITTES. Everyman, my leve now of the[e] I take.  
      I will folowe the other, for here I the[e] forsake.  
  EVERYMAN. Alas, than may I waile and wepe!  
      For I toke you for my best frende.  
      FIVE WITTES. I will no lenger the[e] kepe. guard
850     Now farewell, and there an ende. [Exit Five Wits.]  
  EVERYMAN. O Jesu, helpe! All hath forsaken me.  
  GOOD DEDES. Nay, Everyman, I will bide with the[e].  
      I will not forsake the[e] indede;  
      Thou shalte finde me a good frende at nede.  
  EVERYMAN. Gramercy, Good Dedes! Now may I true frendes se.  
      They have forsaken me, everychone;  
      I loved them better than my Good Dedes alone.  
      Knowlege, will ye forsake me also?  
  KNOWLEGE. Ye[a], Everyman, whan ye to Deth shall go;  
860     But not yet, for no maner of daunger.  
  EVERYMAN. Gramercy, Knowlege, with all my herte!  
  KNOWLEGE. Nay, yet I will not from hens departe  
      Till I se where ye shall be come.  
  EVERYMAN. Methinke, alas, that I must be gone  
      To make my rekeninge and my dettes paye,  
      For I se my time is nye spent awaye.  
      Take example, all ye that this do here or se, hear
      How they that I love[d] best do forsake me  
      Excepte my Good Dedes, that, bideth truely.  
870 GOOD DEDES. All erthly thinges is but vanité:  
      Beauté, Strength, and Discrecion do man forsake,  
      Folisshe frendes, and kinnesmen, that faire spake -  
      All fleeth save Good Dedes, and that am I.  
  EVERYMAN. Have mercy on me, God moost mighty,  
      And stande by me, thou moder and maide, Holy Mary!  
  GOOD DEDES. Fere not; I will speke for the[e].  
  EVERYMAN. Here I crye God mercy!  
  GOOD DEDES. Shorte our ende, and minisshe our paine; Shorten/diminish
      Let us go and never come againe.  
880 EVERYMAN. Into thy handes, Lorde, my soule I commende.  
      Receive it, Lorde, that it be not lost.  
      As thou me boughtest, so me defende, redeemed
      And save me from the fendes boost, fiend's
      That I may appere with that blessyd hoost  
      That shall be saved at the day of dome.  
886     In manus tuas, of mightes moost  
887     Forever, commendo spiritum meum!  
[Everyman and Good Deeds descend into the grave.]
  KNOWLEGE. Now hath he suffred that we all shall endure. that which
      The Good Dedes shall make all sure.  
890     Now hath he made endinge.  
      Methinketh that I here aungelles singe, hear
      And make grete joy and melody  
      Where Everymannes soule received shall be.  
  THE AUNGELL [above, or within]. Come, excellente electe spouse to Jesu! bride
      Here-above thou shalte go,  
      Bicause of thy singuler yertue.  
      Now thy soule is taken thy body fro,  
      Thy rekeninge is crystall clere.  
      Now shalte thou into the hevenly sp[h]ere,  
900     Unto the whiche all ye shall come  
      That liveth well before the daye of dome.  
      [Enter doctor as epilogue.] learned cleric
  DOCTOUR. This morall men may have in minde.  
      Ye herers, take it of worth, olde and yonge, prize it highly
      And forsake Pride, for he deceiveth you in the ende.  
      And remembre Beauté, Five Wittes, Strength, and Di[s]crecion,  
      They all at the last do every man forsake,  
      Save his Good Dedes there dothe he take. Unless
      But beware; [for], and they be small, if
      Before God he hath no helpe at all.  
910     None excuse may be there for every man.  
      Alas, how shall he do than?  
      For, after dethe, amendes may no man make,  
      For than mercy and pité doth him forsake.  
      If his rekeninge be not clere whan he doth come,  
915     God will saye: "Ite, maledicti, in ignem aeternum!"  
      And he that hath his accounte [w]hole and sounde,  
      Hye in heven he shall be crounde.  
      Unto whiche place God bringe us all thyder,  
      That we may live body and soule togyder.  
920     Therto helpe, the Trinité!  
      Amen, saye ye, for saint Charite. holy
      Thus endeth this morall playe of Everyman.  
      Imprinted at London in Poules  
      Chyrche yarde by me  
      Johan Skot.  




33 heled their fete: refers to Christ's washing the disciples' feet for man's spiritual benefit. See John 13:1-20.

77 To blind his sight, and separate (him) from heaven.

141 But hasten quickly on that journey.

161 given the[e]: i.e., given permanently rather than loaned from God.

171 0 wretched caitife: spoken by Everyman to himself.

258 i.e., But such pleasant companionship is now out of the question, truly.

273 Or frequent women's pleasurable company.

289-90 Yet, I beg you, take the trouble at least to go with me, for the sake of holy charity.

316 i.e., Kinship will persevere even in difficult circumstances. (Cf. "blood is thicker than water.")

334 that... waite: who is watching to catch me up.

351 Ah, sir, what a merry man you are!

379 i.e., Lo, fair promises give fools a false sense of security.

421 And that's what you get for worshiping me.

423 answere: i.e., my answering before God.

436 And I can blame it entirely on my misspending my time.

507 I can't find a single letter here.

575-76 This contrition and confession have rejoiced and lightened my heart within, although the knots be painful and hard.

601-3 And, Lady, I crave that by the mediation of your prayer and through the means of his Passion I may be partaker of your son's glory.

637 God, in his throne above, sees your (amended) way of living.

70l-2 (Everyman, who like every "Mankind" protagonist has gotten his wealth at others' expense, evidently provides that this wealth is to be repaid by his estate.)

735-36 (For contemporaneous instances of this idea, placing priests above the angels in degree, see Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ, iv,v, and G. R. Owst, Literature and Pulpit in Medieval England, p. 530.)

740-41 (As the medieval Church interpreted Christ's charge to Peter, Matthew 16:19, whatever priests bind on earth will be bound in heaven; i.e., those to whom the Church promises salvation will achieve heaven, and those the Church condemns will be damned.)

750 it is so: i.e., that priests are above angels in degree.

755 (Acts 8:18-23. The allusion is to the practice of simony, the buying or selling of spiritual things.)

758 Or who for (their Saviour) receive or pay out money.

760 i.e., I have heard that priests have illegitimate children.

787 (See the first apocryphal Book of the Maccabees, chap. 3. Judas Maccabeus was a successful warrior against the heathen dynasty of Antiochus iv, ca. 160 B.C.)

801 i.e., I'll gather up my knitting or spinning and be on my way. (Tappe or top is the flax or tow put on the spinning distaff.)

820 Strength, I am to blame for displeasing you; i.e., I apologize for reminding you of your promise.

880(Christ's last words, Luke 23:46.)

886-87 Into your hands, (you who are) the greatest of powers forever, I commend my spirit. (Luke 23:46.)

915 Depart, ye cursed, into everlasting fire. (See Matthew 25:41.)